Emission Control
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Benefits of Renting vs. Owning Air Pollution Control Equipment
We have a ready to use air pollution control fleet or can design a specialized system for your plant operations. Some of the available systems include:
Granulated Activated Carbon (GAC) Systems, Biological Oxidation Systems, Wet Scrubbers, Regenerative, Catalytic and Direct Fired
Thermal Oxidizers
. Rentals range from 6 months to 5 years with flexible options.
Carbon monoxide (CO), also called carbonous oxide, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas
which is slightly lighter than air. It is highly toxic to humans and animals in higher quantities. Carbon
monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom, connected by a triple bond which
consists of two covalent bonds as well as one dative covalent bond. It is the simplest oxocarbon. In
coordination complexes the carbon monoxide ligand is called carbonyl.

Carbon monoxide is produced from the partial oxidation of carbon-containing compounds; it forms
when there is not enough oxygen to produce carbon dioxide (CO2). In the presence of oxygen,
carbon monoxide burns with a blue flame, producing carbon dioxide. Some processes in modern
technology, such as iron smelting, still produce carbon monoxide as a by-product.

Levels normally present in the atmosphere are unlikely to cause ill effects. Inhalation of low levels of
carbon monoxide (200 parts per million for 2-3 hours) can cause headache, dizziness, light-
headiness and fatigue. Exposure to higher concentrations (400 parts per million) of carbon
monoxide can cause sleepiness, hallucinations, convulsions, collapse, loss of consciousness and
death. It can also cause personality and memory changes, mental confusion and loss of vision.

Extremely high exposures to carbon monoxide can cause the formation of carboxyhemoglobin and
decrease the body’s ability to carry oxygen. This can cause a bright red color to the skin and
mucous membranes causing trouble breathing, collapse, convulsions, coma and death.

Long term (chronic) health effects can occur from exposure to low levels of carbon monoxide. These
effects may produce heart disease and damage to the nervous system. Exposure of pregnant
women to carbon monoxide may result in low birth weights and other defects in the offspring.

Industry Sources

Generally, industrial plants exhaust carbon monoxide to air from a combustion process. Examples of
industrial plants that produce carbon monoxide include: metals (iron, steel, non-ferrous)
manufacturing, electricity supply, mining (metal ore, coal), food manufacturing, oil and gas
extraction, chemical manufacturing, cement lime, plaster and concrete manufacturing and petroleum
refining.

Economical Industrial Prevention

Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers and Catalytic Thermal Oxidizers are combustion systems that
control Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) and
Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP’s) emissions by combusting them to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water
with exception of H2S which is reduced to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3).

The design of the system is dependent on the pollutant concentration in the waste gas stream, type
of pollutant, presence of other gases, level of oxygen, stability of processes vented to the system,
and degree of control required. Important design factors include temperature (a temperature high
enough to ignite the organic constituents in the waste gas stream), residence time (sufficient time for
the combustion reaction to occur), turbulence or mixing of combustion air with the waste gas and in
the case of many VOCs and CO the level of O2 concentration.
Time, temperature, degree of mixing, and sufficient oxygen concentration govern the completeness of the combustion reaction. Of these, only temperature and oxygen concentration can be significantly
Many state regulatory agencies granting permits are not familiar with CO destruction using a Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers. Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer’s are capable of combusting between 98.5%
chamber design.

The CO combustion will occur in the upper portion of the ceramic media beds and also in the combustion chamber, destruction occurs within the operating temperatures of (1,200 - 1,550°F).  A typical
pressure drop is across the ceramic media bed is between 4 to 8” inches of water column for each of the operating media beds and will provide adequate mixing of the CO gas stream resulting in little
stratification in the combustion chamber.

With a inlet CO gas stream having a high concentration ranging from 1,400 ppmv to 3,800 ppmv indicate an inlet oxygen concentration as low as 9% may be sufficient for adequate combustion of CO.
Despite the destruction efficiency observed within the combustion chamber, any leakage across the inlet or outlet valves may limit the ultimate performance of the systems. Consideration should be given to
the required control efficiency and alternate methods of valve arrangement, such as in series valve arrangement or with a positive air seal should higher destruction efficiencies be required above 98%.
Consideration must also be given to possible valve performance decline due to the valve seal over their lifetime. Systems should be maintained on a semi-annual basis during which valve seals should be
observed for any possible leaks.

Frequent monitoring or testing of an RTO may be required to assure continued compliance with any permit conditions. A continuous CO monitor may be used as an indication of CO control. If the permit is
based upon control efficiency rather than allotted mass emission rates based upon historical influent concentrations and flows, compliance with the permit can be monitored using a continuous CO analyzer
on the outlet stream.

Conclusion

One of the most cost effective approaches at present of controlling CO emissions with ppmv ranges between 500 to 5000 ppmv is either a Regenerative Catalytic Oxidizer or the Regenerative Thermal
Oxidizer. When controlling CO, consideration must be given to the overall control efficiency of the system. While a regenerative thermal oxidizer with indirect ceramic media heat exchanger's are capable of
constantly exceeding 99% control efficiency, a regenerative system may be limited by valve performance. Depending on the desired control efficiency of the system, appropriate valves or valve configuration
must be included in the design.
Controlling Carbon Monoxide Emissions
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