Emission Control
American Environmental
Fabrication & Supply, LLC
Natural Gas Conditioning
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Benefits of Renting vs. Owning Air Pollution Control Equipment
We have a ready to use air pollution control fleet or can design a specialized system for your plant operations. Some of the available systems include:
Granulated Activated Carbon (GAC) Systems, Biological Oxidation Systems, Wet Scrubbers, Regenerative, Catalytic and Direct Fired
Thermal Oxidizers
. Rentals range from 6 months to 5 years with flexible options.
We offer equipment manufacturing, design, engineering and service for your specific projects. In
addition we offer versatile plans which allow you to either purchase, lease, rent or place your equipment on
a long term service agreement.
All systems may be fully integrated into your existing plant network.
There are many various types of HAP and VOC control and gas separation technologies in today’s market,
but most of them
may not be right for your application. Knowing the various principals behind each of
around the world and air pollution control equipment manufacturers are developing better technologies to
meet these growing
U.S.A. and international regulations while providing improvements in air pollution
control investment and the associated operating costs.

We will design the most cost effective system to meet your requirement today and throughout any
plant expansion process. Integrating plant controls and safeties with each of our technologies is forefront to
the overall design of our equipment. Listed below are some of the most popular pollution control
technologies.

Biological Oxidation

Biological Oxidation is a method of capturing unwanted hydrocarbons with the use of granulated
activated carbon and destruction by use of specialized bacteria.
The microbes are specifically
designed to digest the unwanted hydrocarbon structures emitted in the off-gas process. The bacteria are
introduced to work in conjunction with a granulated activated carbon system to produce a very high
destruction efficiency. These efficiencies are commonly >99%. The major benefit of a
Biological Oxidation
System
is the reduction in operating costs such as fuel and electricity. The maintenance on this type of
equipment is reduced due to fewer operating parts. Insurance is also reduced over normal thermal oxidation
equipment due to the inability of the equipment to generate a fire. Although, this technology not a panacea
to all off-gas emissions it offers has great benefit in the reduction of HAP's, VOC's, NOx, H2S and lowering
CO2 exhaust emissions.  

Thermal Oxidation

These applications are most often used to convert organic hydrocarbons into carbon dioxide (CO2)
and water (H2O)
. By increasing the thermal temperature of the waste-gas process stream breaking of the
hydrogen-carbon bonds occurs, this process allows new bonds to be created such as the formation of CO2
and H2O.

Closed Thermal oxidizers characteristically are designed with a 1 second or greater total residence time.
Residence chamber time is the time the waste process stream is contained within the heated area and is
critical for proper mixing of oxygen.
Often oxidizer designs fail to complete the proper mixing in the
retention time frame and additional fuel must be burned to meet the permitted values
.

Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer

Regenerative systems are thermal oxidizers that operate at high temperatures, between 1400°F to 2,300°F.
These systems use structured
ceramic stoneware or other heat exchange media to retain the
generated thermal energy. In most designs, the media is mounted in vertical or horizontal columns. The
process air stream is passed through a column of ceramic media as it enters the regenerative thermal
oxidizer.
combustion chamber.

Typical destruction temperatures of HAP's and VOC waste streams range from 1400°F to 1600°F, however higher temperatures and retention times are required for halogenated hydrocarbons
(1800°F to 2200°F). The waste air stream then exits the oxidizer through a second media column. The second column maintains or stores energy from the hot air stream.
By continued valve cycling the
the heat from the waste-gas air stream exiting the combustion chamber.

When the heat recovery bed starts to lose radiant heat to the incoming air stream, the valves cycle and becomes the other heat recovery bed becomes the acceptor of energy or heat,
continued repeating of the valve cycle assures minimum heat lose. For greater heat retention within the heat recovery chambers the valve cycle rate is increased. The principle is simple and proven.

Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers can be designed with one, two, or three heat recovery beds or columns. Some of the regenerative equipment characteristics are moderate capital equipment costs
with high thermal efficiency
. Destruction is high typically 98%-99% with lower energy costs over direct fired thermal oxidation. Loss through radiation is slightly higher due to the large surface
area, however radiant heat loss can be controlled by the use of high density 12lb. or higher ceramic fiber insulation. Most applications include lower VOC levels with higher waste-gas flows.
Systems can be
designed skid mounted for quick and effective installation, start-up and training times
.

Regenerative Catalytic Oxidizers

Regenerative catalytic oxidizers are similar in design to the regenerative thermal oxidizer. The addition of catalyst media to either the center of the media or the top of the media beds allows lower
operating temperatures 400F to 800F
. Depending on component design, Regenerative Catalytic Systems may also can be operated as a Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer after catalyst degradation.

Systems have
small or no NOx formation, low levels of CO emission, very low operating costs with high thermal efficiency. Caution must be used not to foul or plug the catalyst heat bed and
more stringent burner PID loop controls must be used. These systems have
higher capital costs due to the metallic catalytic media but reduce the energy consumption up to 50% over
regenerative thermal oxidizers.

Catalytic Oxidizers

Catalytic oxidizers are alternatives to other high temperature thermal oxidizers. These systems oxidize waste gas streams into carbon dioxide and water. Their successful operation is limited to a more
controlled range of applications
than other thermal oxidizers. But, catalytic oxidizing systems offer considerably lower fuel consumption, operating costs and lower CO and NOx emissions. The two
essential parts of the equipment are; pre-heat section which is designed to achieve a temperature uniformity of the preheated waste stream, and the catalyst bed, where the greater part of the oxidation
reaction takes place. The
oxidation of most hydrocarbons with the catalysts occurs very quickly in the range of 400-900F.

Catalytic oxidizers are
restricted to applications in which the waste stream has lower particulate loading or “media poisons” which can cause reductions in the effectiveness of the catalyst.
Typical poisons are principally
silicon and phosphorus, which cover the catalyst; halogens harm the active metal coating; and sulfur, may reduce the activity of some catalysts. Attrition, deposition,
coking can cause the media surface to become damaged and replacement is necessary.
Concentrators are used as an emission control device to allow higher volumes of waste gas to be collected on an adsorbent for future destruction. Concentrators allow the lower concentrated VOC's to be
depending on the application. Therefore by using a concentrator many thermal oxidizer systems are allowed to operate without or with minimal amounts of auxiliary fuel. Concentrators reduce the operating
VOC's in the waste gas stream are first processed into one of the adsorption units (two are usually used, but any number above two may be used), while one of the adsorption beds is being thermally
regenerated. Hot air flows into the adsorption unit; this process heats the captured VOC's and thus desorption or boiling off the VOC's occurs. The condensed VOC vapor may now be processed to the
thermal oxidizer for thermal destruction at a higher concentration rate, lower flow rate and higher inlet temperatures. This process reduces the amount of auxiliary fuel required to sustain the set point
destruction temperature of the system.

After the VOC are released, cooling air from a blower is admitted in place of the heated air. When the adsorbent has cooled to ambient conditions, the “conditioned” adsorption capacity has been restored,
and the adsorption bed is now considered regenerated. Regeneration equipment may be designed to occur between one and eight hours depending on the size of adsorption equipment.

Granulated Activated Carbon Systems

Granulated Activated Carbon Systems or  vapor phase voc canisters are designed for a economical cost effective approach to air or vapor treatment for short or long term emission applications.
Systems generally contain all of the necessary requirements for use as an effective VOC emissions control system for air or
vapor phase process treatment applications.

All
GAC Systems include a secure carbon bed support across the entire canister lower sectional area which creates a plenum region below the support area for proper inlet distribution across the carbon
bed. These carbon canisters are generally constructed of
unlined carbon steel or T304 stainless steel, angle iron supports are used to support the perforated screens used with activated carbon
during air treatment. Most GAC vapor phase carbon adsorption canisters are designed for
treatment up from 10 to 2000 cfm. The vapor phase GAC adsorption units provided a wide variety of vapor
phase activated carbon products that can be specific for your air or vapor treatment application. These systems provide a very low cost, effective method of  treating small quantities of vapor phase VOC's.

VOC Air Stripping - Tray Aeration Treatment

Contaminated VOC water is generally pumped into an inlet chamber where it flows over distribution weirs and along the aeration trays located inside the air stripper unit. The filtered ambient air from outside
the stripper unit is blown into the fluid process with sufficient pressure to push the filtered air up through the aeration holes located on the aeration trays. As the air flows upward through the water, bubbles
are created which forms froth. This
froth increases the surface area of the treatment water which allows mass transfer of the VOC contaminates from the water to the exhaust stream. The
stripped off gas and air continues upward and is blown out the top of the air stripper unit for discharge to an additional post treatment device the finished water flows down to the bottom of the air stripper
unit where it is
collected and pumped to the waste water distribution system.

Operation of the aeration tray system also may cause oxidation of metals and formation of scaling from the water hardness. The concentration of this depends on the water supplied to the air
treatment system. Once formed, the metals formation and scaling eventually cause fouling of the trays and require periodic cleaning.
Periodic cleaning of the trays is accomplished by accessing
ports on the system with a washing wand or high-pressure washer
. More thorough cleaning requires that the trays be removed completely. Spare trays can be provided to allow continued operation
during cleaning.

Solvent Recovery Systems

Adsorption technology is the physical attachment of VOC ions and molecules onto the surface of another. The essential principle of adsorption when pertaining to plant waste gas emission control is
when the volatile organic compound within the process air stream passes through a bed of very
high surface area solid which usually consist of the following materials; activated carbon, silica gel, or
molecular sieve material
.

Once the empty spaces within the adsorption material are filled with VOC's to capacity, the waste gas process stream is then diverted to a second adsorption container while the original container removes
the VOC bonding by passing high pressure stream or by raising the temperature within the adsorption container by thermal induction releasing highly concentrated VOC's. The highly concentrated volatile
organic compounds within the air stream passes through a condenser and a distillation column whereby it is separated and recovered from the VOC laden process stream condensate.
Alternative
solutions to applying use of a condenser and distillation column is to exhaust the saturated VOC's to a thermal oxidizer during non-peak times, when the thermal oxidizer is not heavily
used and can operate with higher VOC levels
.

Higher investment capital is required with moderate energy cost. Destruction efficiencies range from 95-98% with higher maintenance costs from replacement or regeneration of
adsorption material. Additional distillation is necessary to separate several solvents with the potential to reuse or sell the solvent.

Right Technology For The Operation

Which one of the listed technologies may best be applied for your application?  Your answer can be difficult depending on the method you take in the evaluation process. The best approach is to find a
vendor that offers an evaluation of your waste gas process stream and production requirements and to make recommendations for the best technology.
Most vendors will offer a free
evaluation to assist you. Some of the information is required to make the right decision are listed below:

A.        Total number of emitting sources
B.        Annual hours for each of the emitting sources
C.        Form each source the flow rate, SCFM or M3
D.        Total (lb/hr or kg/hr) of VOC material from each listed source
E.        Composition of the process stream (VOC's, particulate matter, silicon)
F.        Energy costs
G.        Regulatory requirements for your facility

After collection of the data, a request for quotation (RFQ) can be sent to selected vendors. A vendor should have the appropriate technologies in its product mix and is willing to stand behind their
equipment.

Guidelines For A Correct Equipment Purchase

When evaluating the options, include operating, installation, training, plant control, and equipment capital costs. Capital and operating costs should be based on the actual utility costs, operational
times and annual operating schedules of the plant.

Ask for a document presenting
all the features for the proposed equipment to ensure you are making a correct comparison. Request a production schedule for the system to ensure that the
facility can meet any of your regulatory requirements.

Working with proper data, applying utility costs, facility limitations, regulatory requirements and plant operating schedules all comprise important roles in determining the correct abatement equipment.
Working with a vendor can greatly assist in making the right product choice.
Choosing The Correct Emission Control Technology
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