Fabrication & Supply, LLC
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VOC Biofiltration Systems
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Benefits of Renting vs. Owning Air Pollution Control Equipment
We have a ready to use air pollution control fleet or can design a specialized system for your plant operations. Some of the available systems include:
Granulated Activated Carbon (GAC) Systems, Biological Oxidation Systems, Wet Scrubbers, Regenerative, Catalytic and Direct Fired
Thermal Oxidizers. Rentals range from 6 months to 5 years with flexible options.
|Biological Oxidation System
Biological Oxidation System
Biological Oxidation Systems are becoming the low cost solution for HAP, VOC, BTEX and Odor control
from industrial, agricultural, energy and municipal sources of air emissions. This method is currently
being used to biologically oxidize toxic and other volatiles in industrial effluents present in higher
However, the market for biological oxidation abatement technology has been a fraction of the equipment
supplied when compared to more traditional abatement control technologies such as; thermal oxidizers,
regenerative thermal oxidizers, catalytic thermal oxidizers and granulated carbon filters.
Biological Oxidation Introduction
A frequent cited example is the overall emission control efficiencies of >99% percent or slightly above
conditions that exist within the United States, the United States industry has preferred the use of
abatement control technologies such as incinerators i.e. Thermal oxidizers which actively reach
destruction efficiencies of 98%+ and are more conventional in nature. Biological Oxidation in the U.S. is
currently competing against these control technologies which have been widely accepted and used, and
whose performance has been well understood for decades.
Currently, second and third generation biological oxidation systems are capable of achieving much
higher destructions 99%+ and are equal to or often surpass many of the more conventional destruction
methods, such as regenerative thermal oxidizer systems, this newer more advanced biological oxidation
system has adopted a fluidized granulated carbon adsorption bed and are currently achieving
documented destruction efficiencies above 99 percent.
The reality that most European countries have odor standards that may help to explain why biological
filtration systems exist in more often in European countries. The objective in the European case is
overcoming, the odor nuisance rather than meeting specific destruction efficiency as adopted by most
U.S. State and Federal Agencies. After analysis you will find that there are no real obstructions that
exist preventing the total widespread use of the American Environmental TEAM Unit combining
granulated carbon absorption / biological oxidation system as the lowest carbon footprint
providing a very clean and viable pollution control technology.
The Clean Air Act (CAA) has an important impact on the United States environmental regulations, and
many regulatory aspects are contained in its provisions. Directed by various provisions dealing with
metropolitan air pollution, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has issued regulations and State
instruction documents to control many pollutants to include ground level Ozone, nitrogen oxides (NOx),
and sulfur compounds that include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfur trioxide (S03) and
Volatile organic compounds (VOC's) are restricted because they are a significant contributor to the
formation of ozone with many of the compounds contributing hundreds of times that of carbon dioxide
(CO2) per pound. To reduce, VOC's, the EPA and State agencies have developed regulations to
minimize levels of emission that have been identified in their State
Implementation Plans. Most often the level of HAP and VOC control is based on those presented in a
Control Techniques Guidelines (CTG) issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for
a particular source category.
Control Techniques Guidelines provides an overview of the various emission points with industry and the typical cost of using reasonably available control technology (RACT) to reduce emissions from the
relevant emission points at an existing facility. Emission points differ and may be a stack, collection system, bag house, ventilation area, boiler or other operational unit. Often VOC's and Hazardous Air
MACT Standards focus on cancer and irreversible health effects, whereas RACT focuses on reducing ground level ozone reduction because of its effect on human health and welfare. Hence, it should not be
unexpected to find MACT levels of control for reducing a compound such as benzene, a more restrictive control level.
The Pollution Prevention Act in 1990, United States Environmental Protection Agency has been working to promote pollution prevention (P2), mainly through source reduction. However, there is little
evidence that issuance of the P2 Act has resulted in regulations that have precluded any use of control technologies for meeting emission limits. However, P2 is now offered as a competing alternative to
Accessibility of Control Information
It was a difficult assignment in the past for an owner or operations manager to select a pure biological system to reduce waste or off-gas emissions as a means of compliance. Unlike in the case of biological
treatment of VOC's in wastewater, vapor phase GAC systems have mostly been used in the United States for treating odor and far less for treating HAP's and VOC's in air. This is not because the pollutants
in air are more complex than in waste water. In fact, the off-gas waste streams can be easily analyzed using conventional flame ionization techniques.
There are numerous publications describing what granulated carbon adsorption systems offer as a control technology and the use of biological filters as a digestion system. Most of these articles described
only biological filtration units or granulated carbon adsorption systems, it has been understood that in an aerobic environment, degradation (biological oxidation) of the pollutants occurs in the biological film,
and the biological film was attached around the carbon particles, which make up the granulated carbon bed. The oxidation reacted bi-products are carbon dioxide, water.
The parameters that were needed to characterize the size and estimate the cost of building a biological oxidation unit are well understood. If we adopt the presently used representation of the design
parameters, they included the empty bed residence time (EBRT) in seconds, which is calculated as the volume of the space occupied by the packing material (assuming no void volume) divided by the
Efforts to model the performance (biological pollutant removal) of biological oxidation system are abundant and very specific, as most modeling work is. In 1997 OAQPS hosted the 1997 Air Biological
Filtration or Biological Reactor Meeting. The purpose of the meeting was to bring together the wood furniture industry, academic institutions, and manufacturers. Thus United States Environmental option.
Biological Filtration systems were discussed during the later 1997 meeting. Among the latest of designs presented was a Biological Filtration System, which used a granulated activated carbon bed and
offered a self carbon cleaning system that produced no biological mass waste with a DRE reacting 87%.
American Environmental Fabrication & Supply
We offer a granulated activated carbon system housed within a series of stainless steel modules which is used to capture (adsorb) the pollutants in the waste or off-gas process stream. During the process
the pollutants are trapped within the granulated carbon and leached into a bath of oxygenated water, it is here that the bacteria reside and destruction of the hazardous pollutants occurs. The hazardous
pollutants are leached to the microbial water bath during the system cycle.
The new patented system termed the TEAM unit (Total Enclosed Air Module) is able to control the emissions of pollutants from the waste gas process stream, to a specific designed level absorption level
capable of reaching greater than 99% capture and greater than 99% destruction efficiency. Various biological and structural systems may be addressed based on the pollutant type and if they contain
The combination granulated activated carbon / biological oxidation system produces no biomass during the biological oxidation reaction. Particulate matter should be limited within the process stream as this
matter may be released during the submersion of the biological reactor bed and cause the production of biomass to occur. We have introduced a complete preliminary oxidation process to remove all
particulate matter prior to the biological oxidizer.
Water must also periodically be drained from system, but requires no down time as the granulated activated carbon adsorbs the pollutants until the system is re-filled with water and microbes. The amounts
and quantity of the drain will depend on the type emissions and operation of a system, but are usually every 30 days. The biological oxidation reaction creates by-products which are carbon dioxide and
water vapor. The microbes are natural occurring and as such periodically need to be replaced. Disposition of the natural occurring microbes may be completed by normal waste water treatment.
Sizing And Cost Of A Biological Oxidation System
The installed cost of a biological oxidizer system depends on the amount and pollutant being degraded. There are also variations within a type of system. For a medium sized closed bed system where
output streams can be readily monitored (20,000 CFM), designed for destruction of HAP's and VOC's average costs are approximately around $5.16 per operating hour, and will vary slightly with the
electrical cost. The preliminary equipment cost is estimated to be approximately ($35-40/ per cfm). The actual cost of a system and cost of operation may vary with size, loading capabilities and controls.
Discussions And Conclusions
Biological Filtration systems, especially the open bed systems, were widely used in the early 1990s in Europe, because odor standards were in place, which required controlling nuisance from species in
amounts less than less than 50 ppmv. However, in the U.S. the focus was to destroy VOC's and HAP's. The Biological Oxidation technology for higher level VOC's and HAP's and American Environmental
Fabrication & Supply has more recently proven the biological oxidation system as a viable system for industrial emission control.
To date the American Environmental Fabrication & Supply unit has been controlling VOC and HAP's emissions. Many of the prior systems have been designed for odor control, where this technology is
said to be both reliable and economic, great advances have been made using biological oxidation systems for emission control. Odor treatment currently remains the largest market for the pure biological
filtration technology which includes odors from waste water treatment, such as sludge treatment, pulp and paper production, tobacco production, and bakery operations.
The biological oxidation system is designed to meet performance requirements as required in United States Environmental Protection Agency Regulations and is presently competing against more
traditional control devices, such as regenerative thermal oxidizers, catalytic thermal oxidizer, direct fired thermal oxidizers.
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|Our working process
in 3 steps
Implement proven equipment designs with
chemical, thermal and biological reactions
that achieves the required process result.
Results shall be based on reaction rates
and proper control logic.
Our Corporate goal is to implement the
correct design criteria with the use of
proper metals, instruments and controls to
achieve the required result with the least
amount of maintenance and associated
We pride ourselves in going the extra mile
before it leaves the plant. It is our way of
knowing that you are receiving correctly
designed equipment to meet your specific
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